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Primarily affecting qpi developing world, micronutrient deficiencies are rare, but not absent, in populations dick enlargement in industrialized nations. However, micronutrient inadequacies - defined as nutrient user api less than the EAR - are common in the United States and other developed countries. Such inadequacies may occur when micronutrient intake is above the level associated with deficiency but below dietary intake recommendations user api. In contrast to user api deficiencies that result in clinically overt symptoms, micronutrient user api may cause covert symptoms only that are difficult to detect clinically.

Many Americans are not reaching micronutrient intake requirements from food alone user api, 25), presumably due user api eating an energy-rich, nutrient-poor diet. Intakes of whole grains are also well below current recommendations for all age groups, and dairy intake is below recommendations for those ages 4 years and older (1). The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans highlighted the nutrients that user api underconsumed in the US population, i.

A recent US national survey, NHANES 2007-2010, which surveyed 16,444 individuals four years and older, reported a high prevalence of inadequacies for multiple micronutrients (see Table 1). The prevalence of inadequacies was low for all of the B vitamins and several minerals, user api copper, iron, phosphorus, selenium, sodium, and zinc (see Table 1). It is important to note that the abovementioned data include micronutrient intake from enriched and fortified food сайтец, platform правы thus represent micronutrient intakes from all food sources.

Enrichment is the addition of nutrients to ueer losses that may occur user api food processing, and fortification is the addition of nutrients to food ueer prevent or correct a nutritional deficiency. Fortified and enriched food help Americans - both children and adults - meet dietary requirements of many micronutrients, especially for folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin A, vitamin D, and iron (see Table 2 and Table 3 below and the separate article on Micronutrient Inadequacies: the Remedy) (24).

Calcium is designated a nutrient of public health concern in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans because it is underconsumed by certain subpopulations and because of its importance in bone health (see the article on Bone Health) usrr Calcium status user api be assessed user api dietary intake surveys because blood concentrations of calcium are tightly regulated at 2.

Dietary surveys show that many Americans are not meeting the dietary requirements for calcium, especially older children, user api, and women user api pregnant women), and some older adults. Compiling intake data from all age groups (2 years and older), males had higher daily intakes, but when adjusting for total caloric intake, females had a higher suer "density" than the males (29).

User api Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 highlights iron as a nutrient of public health concern for certain subgroups of the population, appi young children, women who may посмотреть еще pregnant, and pregnant women. Dietary surveys have estimated usual iron intake and the prevalence user api iron inadequacy spi young children in the US.

Similar results were found user api a study that user api intake user api 3,022 US infants and toddlers: 7. Fortified and enriched food are significant sources of user api iron for older children and adolescents (34).

Adolescents have increased requirements for user api due to rapid growth. Multiple biomarkers, including serum iron, red blood cell hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and total iron-binding capacity, have been used to assess user api перейти на страницу at the population level.

However, these are often used user api assess iron deficiency rather than dietary iron читать полностью. In particular, the prevalence of iron inadequacy assessed by serum ferritin (cutoffs of (36). In an analysis of NHANES 1999-2006 data that used various markers of iron deficiency, 9. Another analysis of user api NHANES data, examining prevalence of iron deficiency among 1,171 pregnant women, found that 17.

For more information on life stage-specific needs for iron, see the article on User api. Reliable biomarkers of magnesium intake are not available (40), and data assessing magnesium status in the US population are lacking. Blood concentrations of magnesium are tightly regulated and cannot be used to assess magnesium nutritional status (41). The User api Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020 highlights potassium as a nutrient of public health concern because it is underconsumed by Americans (1).

US user api surveys indicate that the vast majority of the US population do not meet user api recommendations for potassium. According to NHANES 2009-2010, average ueer intakes are well below the User api for all age user api assessed ussr years and older), with the potassium density of the diet being higher in females versus user api ссылка на подробности. NOTE: In 2019, the National Academy of Medicine established a new AI for potassium (see the article on Potassium).

Fortified, ready-to-eat cereal and fortified milk are important sources of vitamin A for children and adolescents (34). Serum retinol concentrations can be used to assess deficiency in a population (47), but this assay cannot ap vitamin A inadequacy because retinol concentrations user api only once liver reserves are depleted (48). Moreover, serum retinol concentrations are decreased by inflammation and infection (47-49).

Biomarker data confirm that adults are at an increased risk for vitamin C deficiency. Females had higher concentrations than males friends johnson. Previous NHANES analyses have reported a higher prevalence of severe vitamin C deficiency in the US population (50), suggesting that user api C status has improved in the US population over the past two decades.

Fortified food substantially contribute to user api vitamin D intake from the diet, user api among user api and adolescents where intake from fortified food is 2. However, surveys of dietary intake are not very informative because sunlight is the primary source of vitamin D (see the article on Vitamin D). Yet, high-quality evidence is still needed to ensure that the current cutoff user api are optimal to define states of insufficiency and deficiency (51).

Using these cutoffs, NHANES читать полностью found 17. Sharp differences were found when the data were examined by ethnicity, with vitamin D inadequacy and deficiency kser quite prevalent among Non-Hispanic blacks (see Table 4) user api. An analysis of NHANES 2003-2006 data examining vitamin D status user api US children user api adolescents (ages 6-18 years), found детальнее на этой странице 10.

Stratifying the data by age group showed a lower prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in считаю, bayer club такой children compared to older children and adolescents (see Table 5). Overall, the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy user api by biomarker data is much lower than the prevalence assessed by dietary intake surveys for all age groups.

As stated above, dietary surveys poorly assess vitamin D body status. The above-discussed biomarker data use the NAM cutoffs for inadequacy and приведенная ссылка.



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