Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum

Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum эта

есть что-нибудь? Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum

The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of перейти confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial.

In recent years, the media have reported numerous high-profile cases in which individuals were convicted of and incarcerated for serious crimes they did not commit, only later to be exonerated. To date, more than 220 individuals have been exonerated by postconviction DNA testing and released from prison, some from death row (e. Although researchers and scholars have long documented the problem of wrongful conviction,3 the use of DNA testing to exonerate innocent prisoners and the sustained media attention that it has received has increased public recognition that the criminal justice system often convicts the wrong people.

For in most criminal cases, there was and is no DNA evidence available for testing. Nevertheless, the DNA exonerations provide a window into the causes of erroneous prosecution and wrongful conviction. A disturbing number of these cases involved false confessions given by innocent defendants during a psychologically coercive police interrogation.

In the Central Park Jogger case, for example, all five juveniles посмотреть еще confessed after lengthy unrecorded interrogations in Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum they were yelled at, lied to, threatened, and promised immunity in exchange for their admissions to participating in the assault and rape.

They also do not include false confessions that were dismissed or disproved before trial, those that resulted in guilty pleas, those given for crimes that were not subject to postconviction review (especially less serious crimes), and those given in cases that contain confidentiality provisions (e.

False confessions raise important questions for social scientists, mental health professionals, policy-makers, and the public. They are consistently one of the leading, yet most misunderstood, causes of error in the American legal system and thus remain one of the most prejudicial sources of Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum evidence that lead to wrongful convictions.

In this article, I will review and analyze the empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions, the psychological logic and various types of false confession, and the consequences of Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum false-confession evidence Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum trials.

Although other researchers have also documented and analyzed numerous false confessions in recent years, we do not know how frequently they occur. A scientifically meaningful incidence rate cannot be determined for several reasons. First, researchers cannot identify (and thus cannot randomly sample) the universe of false confessions, because no governmental подробнее на этой странице private organization keeps track of this information.

Second, even if one could identify a set of possibly false confessions, it is not usually possible as a practical matter to obtain the primary case materials (e. Finally, even in disputed confession cases Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum which researchers are able to obtain primary case materials, it may still be difficult to determine unequivocally the ground truth (i. Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum most alleged false-confession cases, it is therefore impossible to remove completely any possible doubts about the confessor's innocence.

Social science research on wrongful convictions, however, has demonstrated that there are four ways to prove a confession is false: (1) when it can be objectively established that the suspect confessed to a crime that did not happen (e. Nevertheless, researchers have documented approximately 300 proven false confessions in recent decades. Most lay people believe in what has been referred to as the myth of psychological interrogation: that an innocent person will not falsely confess to police unless he is physically tortured or mentally ill.

There is no single cause of false confession, and there is no single logic or type of false confession. Police-induced false confessions result from a multistep process and sequence of influence, persuasion, and compliance and usually involve psychological coercion.

To understand why criminal suspects give false confessions, we must first understand how police investigators target criminal suspects and how police interrogation works as a psychological process, before eliciting a suspect's admission and in the postadmission stage of interrogation.

There are three sequential errors, which occur during a police-elicited false confession, that lead to a wrongful conviction. Once they have elicited a false admission, they pressure the suspect to provide a postadmission narrative that they jointly shape, often supplying the innocent suspect with the (public and nonpublic) facts of the crime. These have been referred to as the misclassification error, the coercion error, and the contamination error.

Whether to interrogate or not is therefore a critical decision point in the investigative process. If police did not erroneously interrogate innocent people, they would never elicit false confessions.

Because misclassifying innocent suspects is a necessary condition for all false confessions and wrongful convictions, it is both the first and the most consequential error that police make.

There are many cognitive errors that lead увидеть больше to classify an innocent person mistakenly as a guilty suspect. Perhaps the most prominent stems from poor and erroneous investigation training. American police are taught, falsely, that they can become human lie detectors capable нажмите чтобы прочитать больше distinguishing truth from deception at high, if not посмотреть еще Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum, rates of accuracy.

However, social scientific studies have repeatedly demonstrated across a variety of contexts that people are poor human lie detectors and thus are highly prone to error in their judgment about whether an individual is lying or telling the truth.

Most people get it right at rates that are no better Iodixanol Injectable Contrast Medium for for Intravascular Use (Visipaque)- Multum breast plastic surgery (i. The Reid-based Подробнее на этой странице Analysis Interview, which primarily consists of asking 15 to 20 questions designed to evoke particular behavioral (verbal, nonverbal, and paralinguistic) responses from which the interrogator can allegedly discern whether a suspect is telling the truth or lying, has its origins in the polygraph and like the polygraph has been empirically shown to have high rates of error.

Innocent persons may be mistakenly targeted for suspicion and misclassified as guilty suspects for other reasons.

Further...

Comments:

21.02.2020 in 13:57 fligargarfa67:
Прошу прощения, что вмешался... У меня похожая ситуация. Приглашаю к обсуждению.

22.02.2020 in 15:18 Ратмир:
фааааа весело))))