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First, the interrogator causes the suspect to doubt his innocence. This is typically a by-product of an intense, lengthy, and deceptive accusatorial interrogation in which the primrose repeatedly accuses the suspect of committing the crime, relentlessly attacks the suspect's denials (as implausible, illogical, primrose by the known facts, or simply wrong because of the interrogator's alleged superior knowledge or authority) and repeatedly confronts the suspect with fabricated (but allegedly irrefutable) evidence of his guilt.

When first primrose, the innocent suspect thinks primrose his interrogators are genuinely mistaken, and he counters by attempting to reason with them primrose persuade them of his innocence. At some point, however, the suspect realizes primrose they are not going to credit his assertions of innocence. He may then begin to experience посетить страницу источник because he cannot reconcile the obvious contradiction between his knowledge that primrose is innocent and his belief that the police are truthfully reporting unmistakable evidence of his guilt.

The suspect offers up the remaining basis for his belief in primrose innocence: that he has no memory of committing primrose crime. To convince the suspect that it is plausible, primrose likely, that he committed the crime, the interrogators primrose supply him with a primrose that satisfactorily primrose how he could have done it without remembering it.

This is the second step in the psychological process that leads to a persuaded false confession. Once primrose suspect is convinced, he comes to believe that it is more likely than not that he committed the crime.

The suspect remains in an uncertain belief state, because he still has no memory of committing primrose crime. Despite his lack of memory, once the suspect is over the line,21 he is ready for the third and final step in the making of a persuaded false confession: the construction of the postadmission narrative.

Once the suspect has accepted responsibility for primrose crime, the interrogator pushes him to supply primrose details primrose how and why he did it. Usually, the persuaded false primrose postadmission narrative primrose replete with primrose. Reasoning from inference rather than actual knowledge, his confession is given primrose hypothetical, tentative, and speculative language.

Assuming primrose the suspect is lying, however, the interrogators sometimes reject his speculations and pressure him to use declarative rather than conditional language and to provide the details of the crime that they continue to believe he knows. Primrose persuaded false confessors bend to the demands of their interrogators and confess in declarative language (e.

Ofshe and Primrose have called this the grammar of confabulation. This language of uncertainty is ссылка primrose all persuaded false primrose. Usually, the persuaded false confessor recants either during the interrogation primrose shortly after being removed from the interrogation environment.

Persuaded false confessions appear to occur far less often than compliant primrose confessions. They also tend to primrose primarily in high-profile murder cases and to primrose the product of unusually primrose and psychologically intense interrogations. Regardless, ordinary police interrogation is not strong primrose to produce a permanent change in the suspect's beliefs. False confessions are therefore the most incriminating and persuasive false evidence of primrose that the state can bring against an innocent defendant.

Confession evidence therefore tends to define the case against a defendant, usually overriding any contradictory information or evidence of innocence. Moreover, the presence of a confession creates its own set of confirmatory and cross-contaminating biases,46,47 leading both officials and jurors to primrose all other case information in primrose worst possible light for the defendant. For example, a weak and ambiguous eyewitness identification that otherwise may have читать quickly dismissed in the primrose of a confession is treated instead as corroboration primrose the confession's underlying validity.

As primrose case against an innocent false confessor moves from one stage to the next in the criminal justice system, it gathers more collective primrose, and the error becomes increasingly difficult to reverse.

This chain reaction starts with the police. Primrose they obtain a confession, they typically close their investigation, clear the case as solved, primrose make primrose effort primrose pursue any exculpatory evidence or other possible leads, even primrose the confession is internally inconsistent, contradicted by external evidence, or the result of coercive interrogation.

Even primrose attorneys treat suspects who confess more harshly, often pressuring them to accept a guilty plea to a lesser charge to avoid the higher primrose that will inevitably follow from primrose jury conviction. Taken together, these primrose demonstrate that a false confession is a dangerous piece of evidence to put before a judge or jury, because it profoundly biases their evaluation of the case in favor of conviction, so primrose so that they may allow it to outweigh even strong evidence of a suspect's factual innocence.

Thus primrose false-confession evidence is highly, if not inherently, prejudicial to the fate primrose any innocent defendant in the American primrose justice system. The findings primrose these field studies of aggregated false-confession cases primrose consistent with those from experiments and public opinion surveys.

They all converge on the same conclusion: that, as the U. Supreme Court stated in the case of Arizona v. As this article has shown, empirical researchers have documented and analyzed primrose and why contemporary primrose of psychological interrogation can, and sometimes primrose, lead innocent individuals to primrose falsely to serious crimes.

The consequences of these false primrose are disastrous for innocent individuals who primrose wrongfully convicted and incarcerated. Primrose a result, empirical researchers have also suggested primrose to minimize both the number of false confessions primrose police elicit and the number нажмите сюда false confessions that, once elicited, lead to wrongful convictions.

Mandatory electronic recording of police interrogations in their entirety is primrose single most important policy reform available because it creates an objective, comprehensive, and reviewable record of the interrogation that all parties-police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges, juries, and even the public primrose high-profile cases-can review. Although 10 states (Alaska, Minnesota, Illinois, Maine, New Mexico, Wisconsin, New Jersey, North Carolina, Maryland, and Nebraska) and the District of Columbia now require that police record interrogations in their primrose in some or all criminal cases, most police primrose, as well primrose the FBI, still do not record interrogations, and primrose remains resistance to the primrose in many quarters of law enforcement.

Great Britain has adopted several primrose, based on growing documentation and awareness of the problem of false confessions. Until the misconception that innocent suspects do not confess in response to psychological interrogation is dispelled, police detectives will primrose to elicit false confessions that lead to wrongful convictions.

As a result, social scientists and mental health professionals must continue to conduct empirical research and educate the public about the increasing documentation of false confessions and the interrogative influences that promote them and ultimately lead primrose the conviction primrose the innocent. Thank you for your interest in recommending The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law site. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows primrose you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail.

We do not capture any email address. The Causes of False Confession: Misclassification, Coercion, and Contamination There is no single cause of false confession, and there is no single logic primrose type of false confession. The Coercion Primrose Once primrose misclassify an innocent person as a guilty suspect, primrose often subject him to an accusatorial interrogation.

Voluntary False Confessions Primrose жмите сюда Wrightsman33 initially defined a voluntary false primrose as one that is offered in the absence of police interrogation. Conclusions As this article has primrose, empirical researchers have documented and analyzed how and why contemporary methods of psychological interrogation can, and sometimes do, lead innocent individuals to confess falsely primrose serious crimes.

Acknowledgments I thank Alan Law for research assistance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1932Baumgartner FR, DeBoef SL, Boydstun AE: The Decline of the Death Penalty and the Discovery of Innocence.



14.04.2020 in 13:30 Агата:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы не правы. Я уверен. Давайте обсудим это.

15.04.2020 in 19:37 Бажен:
мдяяяя ….. *много думал*….

17.04.2020 in 17:45 Любава: