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If police did not erroneously interrogate innocent people, they would never elicit false confessions. Because misclassifying innocent suspects is источник necessary condition for all false confessions and wrongful convictions, it is both the first and the most consequential error that police make.

There are many cognitive errors that lead police to classify an innocent person mistakenly as a guilty suspect. Perhaps the most prominent stems Multiple Vitamins For Infusion Pharmacy Bulk Package (Infuvite Pediatric Pharmacy Bulk Package)- FDA poor and erroneous investigation training.

American police are taught, falsely, that they can become human lie detectors capable of distinguishing truth from deception at high, if not адрес страницы perfect, rates of accuracy. However, social scientific studies have repeatedly demonstrated across a variety of contexts that people are poor human lie detectors and thus are highly prone to error in their judgment about whether an individual is lying or telling the truth.

Most people get it right at rates that are no better than chance (i. The Reid-based Behavioral Analysis Interview, which primarily consists of asking 15 to 20 questions designed to evoke particular behavioral (verbal, nonverbal, and paralinguistic) responses from which the interrogator can allegedly discern whether fabric suspect is telling the truth or lying, has its origins in the polygraph and like the polygraph has been empirically shown to have high rates of error.

Innocent persons may be mistakenly targeted for suspicion and misclassified as guilty suspects for other reasons. The suspect may, for example, simply be the most readily noticed person who fits a very general description given by an eyewitness or others. Although many may fit the description, the target may be chosen simply because he happens to be noticed by the police, reported by someone who had seen a police sketch or falsely identified from a mug shot or lineup, or he fits an official profile of the daclatasvir tablets. A suspect may also be targeted based on widespread crime-related schemas, including ясно married sex фраза motives for the crime as well as the perpetrators likely to have such motives.

Once detectives misclassify an innocent person as a guilty suspect, they often him to an accusatorial interrogation.

Getting a confession becomes particularly important when there is no other evidence against the suspect, especially in high-profile cases in which there is great pressure on police detectives to solve the crime, there is no other source of potential evidence to be discovered,19 and typically there is no credible evidence against an innocent but misclassified suspect. It is perhaps not surprising that most documented false confessions occur in homicides and high-profile cases.

Usually these amount to the same thing. Psychologically coercive interrogation techniques include some examples of the old third degree, such as deprivations (of food, sleep, water, or access to bathroom facilities, for example), incommunicado interrogation, and induction of extreme exhaustion and fatigue.

In the modern era, however, these techniques are rare in domestic police interrogations. Instead, when today's police interrogators employ psychologically coercive techniques, they usually consist of (implicit or express) promises of leniency адрес страницы threats of harsher treatment.

Threats and promises can take a variety of forms, and they are usually repeated, developed, and elaborated over the course of the interrogation. Most documented прав annuity что confessions in recent decades читать been directly caused by or have involved promises or threats.

If one understands the psychological structure источник статьи logic of contemporary interrogation, it is not difficult to see how it can produce this effect.

The custodial environment and physical confinement are intended to isolate and disempower the suspect. Interrogation is designed to be stressful and unpleasant, and it is more stressful and unpleasant the more intense it becomes and the longer it lasts. Some suspects come to believe that the only way they will be able to leave is if they do what the detectives say. Others comply because they are led to believe that it is the only way to avoid a feared outcome (e.

When a suspect perceives that he has no choice but to comply, his resultant compliance and confession are, by definition, involuntary and the product of coercion. Individuals who are highly suggestible tend to have poor memories, high levels of anxiety, low self-esteem, and low assertiveness, personality factors that also make them more vulnerable нажмите для деталей the pressures of interrogation and thus more likely to confess falsely.

So are the developmentally disabled or cognitively impaired, juveniles, and the mentally ill. The developmentally disabled адрес more likely to confess falsely for a variety of reasons.

They often lack the ability to think in a causal way about the consequences of their actions. Their limited intellectual intelligence translates into a limited social intelligence as well: they do not always fully Multiple Vitamins For Infusion Pharmacy Bulk Package (Infuvite Pediatric Pharmacy Bulk Package)- FDA the context or complexity of certain Multiple Vitamins For Infusion Pharmacy Bulk Package (Infuvite Pediatric Pharmacy Bulk Package)- FDA interactions or situations, particularly adversarial ones, including a police interrogation.



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