Journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile

Journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile понравилось

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Viscosity is the main parameter to assess the quality of polymers. The applications of any polymer are dependent on its viscosity. For any polymer to be used in slow-release hydrophilic matrix systems, it should possess certain characteristics, like fast hydration of the polymer and a matrix having a high gel strength, and should be stable during the shelf life. Viscosity is partly responsible for such properties.

A plot between shear rate and viscosity reveals a typical shear thinning phenomenon of polymers for salep, with non-Newtonian flow. It is well known that the physicochemical properties and biopharmaceutical behavior of final dosage forms could be affected by the size and the shape of the excipients.

The influence of the shape on flow, mixing efficiency, stability, dissolution, and on formulation homogeneity is critical in formulation development.

Scanning microscopy (SEM) quantitatibe used to characterize the surface morphology of salep.

Irregular rod-shaped particles with roughened surfaces were observed. The SEM photomicrographs showed that salep powder has two irregular sizes of particles, a small and a larger one. However, both have rough surfaces and round, rough edges (Figure 3). Figure 3 SEM microphotography of salep powder. Abbreviation: SEM, scanning electron microscopy. The floating, gastroretentive tablets of famotidine were prepared by a wet granulation technique, using salep, cellulose microcrystalline, lactose, sodium bicarbonate, along with magnesium stearate and talc.

In the solid dosage form, production by wet granulation, dry granulation, and direct compression are often used. Direct весьма mental health online зарегистрировался is always the first choice of manufacturers, as it reduces overall cost and time during manufacturing.

However, wet granulation has certain benefits, like journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile particle size distribution, good flow of the granules, good uniformity of the dosage forms, and this is also a flexible technique, except for moisture-sensitive drugs.

Hence, wet granulation was adopted, as it is the second best choice in manufacturing. Physical characterizes of floating tablets were determined, and the results are shown in Table 3. The physical evaluation of ot tablets revealed a uniform thickness and weight for all the tablets.

The thickness of all formulation batches ranged from 2. Based on the USP requirement trqnsfer tablets with a stated dose of less than 50 mg, all the 20 tablets showed a drug content uniformity of between 98. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas-generating agent in preparation of floating matrix tablets. The floating capacities (FLT and TFT) for ten prepared formulations were examined, and the results are shown in Figure 4. The results show that all the tablets prepared and compressed at 2,200 N were able to float within 17 minutes.

It was proved in a previous study that sodium bicarbonate can affect the floating lag time by forming gas bubbles after reacting with the acidic medium. The ability of the matrix layer to trap gas bubbles inside the gel matrix journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile an important role in floating lag time, by prolonging floating duration.

However, improving the floating duration was more significant for those formulations that were made using higher viscosity grades of salep, to certain limits. These results indicate that FLT depended on the salep concentration, as an equal amount of sodium bicarbonate was used in all formulations.

The S5 formulation, with a famotidine:salep ratio of 1:1. An increase in salep concentration led to increased FLT. This could be due to the high molecular weight of salep, which may interfere with FLT. Formulation S1 disintegrated before floating. S2 partly disintegrated, and the remaining part floated within a few seconds. Except for the S1 and S2 formulations, the rest of the formulations had long floating durations and others than 24 hours).

This might be due to the high viscosity of jurnal used to prepare these formulations, qjantitative could have developed a strong gel matrix. The air bubbles trapped inside the matrix layer maintain buoyancy epectroscopy a longer time, with a slow dissolving qauntitative that maintains integrity for floating.

A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram of pure famotidine showed a sharp peak as the drug melted at 167. Meanwhile, k roche broad peak was observed at 116.

The melting endotherm of salep was a broad (instead of a sharp) peak, indicating a polymer with specgroscopy of multiple thermal characteristics.

From the DSC thermograms of crushed tablets, peaks corresponding to the melting endotherm of pure famotidine and pure salep were shown. There was no significant change in the melting point of the drug and powder in crushed tablets, compared against the pure drug and polymer, and no other appreciable peak was observed (Figure 5). This indicated that there was no interaction between famotidine and the polymers. In other iournal, drug and polymers were compatible.

Figure 5 Jougnal scanning calorimetry thermogram of pure famotidine, pure salep powder, and crushed tablet of optimum formulation (S5). For pure famotidine, peaks were detected at 3376. The prepared tablet exhibited peaks at 3,504.

No new peaks journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile detected in the tablet spectrum, indicating that no chemical changes had occurred between ingredients during the tablet preparation.

Figure 6 shows the FTIR spectrum of pure crushed tablet, polymer, and famotidine. Figure 6 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of pure famotidine, нажмите для продолжения salep powder, and crushed tablets of optimum formulation (S5).

XRD is a rapid analytical technique, primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material, and can provide information on unit cell dimensions.

The X-ray diffractograms of pure drug, journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile, and their respective formulation journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile are shown in Figure 7.

The X-ray diffractogram of pure famotidine showed sharp characteristic peaks at 5. Salep showed broad peaks at 16. In the X-ray diffractogram of the optimum formulation, there was a decrease in crystallinity of the pure drug, as reflected in the diffractogram by a decrease in the intensity of the characteristic peaks. However, there were no major journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile peaks in the formulation. Thus, the slight differences observed in the XRD patterns may be attributed journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile physical interactions as a result of compression during tableting, and due journal of quantitative spectroscopy and radiative transfer quartile dispersion of polymers while mixing.

Table 4Figure 7 X-ray diffraction of pure famotidine, pure salep powder, and crushed tablet of optimum formulation (S5). The microbial limit of salep powder and the optimized formulation (S5) (stored at room temperature for 5 months) was found to be within the acceptance limit.



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