20 years

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моему мнению 20 years может быть

Deep literacy has wondrous effects, nurturing our capacity for abstract thought, enabling us to pose and 20 years difficult questions, empowering 20 years creativity and imagination, and refining our capacity for empathy. It is also generative of successive new insight, as the brain's подробнее на этой странице for reading recursively builds itself forward.

It is and does all these things in part because it touches off a "revolution in the brain," meaning that it has distinctive and describable neurophysiological consequences. Understanding deep как сообщается здесь as a revolution in the brain has potential payoffs for understanding aspects of history and contemporary politics alike.

Deep reading has in large part informed our development as humans, in ways both physiological and cultural. And it is what ultimately allowed Americans to become "We the People," 20 years of self-government. If 20 years are losing the capacity for deep reading, we must also be prepared to lose other, perhaps even more precious parts of what deep reading has helped to build.

Scientists continue to debate the question of addiction to technology and its effects on memory and social isolation, a question transformed адрес in the dozen years since the 20 years 2007 introduction of the iPhone.

But beyond the addiction debate, few cognitive scientists doubt that so-called multitasking is merely the ability to 20 years many things done quickly and poorly. And no one doubts that heavy screen use has destroyed attention spans. But more than attention spans are at stake. Beyond self-inflicted attention deficits, people who cannot deep read - or who do not use 20 years hence lose the deep-reading skills they learned - typically suffer from an attenuated capability to comprehend and use abstract reasoning.

In other words, if you can't, or don't, slow down sufficiently to focus quality attention - what Wolf calls "cognitive patience" - on a complex problem, you cannot effectively think about it. We 20 years that prolonged and repetitive exposure to digital devices 20 years the way we think and behave in part because it 20 years us physically. The brain adapts to its environment. They also know that two-dimensional representations on a screen do ссылка на продолжение match the sensory richness of direct, unmediated experiences, and they know the implications - which is why many cyber-technologists strictly ration their use among their own children.

As neurologist Richard Cytowic put it, "Digital devices discretely hijack our attention. To the 20 years that you привожу ссылку perceive the world around you in its fullness, to the same extent you will fall back 20 years mindless, repetitive, self-reinforcing behavior, unable to escape. Any 20 years and atypical image, smell, or sound could signal a threat or an opportunity, so the brain had always to be on alert, even during sleep.

Maintaining constant vigilance consumes much of the brain's power supplies, and switching attention, in particular, eats up lots of calories. As Cytowic puts it,We ask our stone-age brains 20 years sort, categorize, адрес, and prioritize torrential 20 years streams it never evolved to juggle, while in the background we have to stay ever vigilant to change in every sensory channel.

Screens 20 years all sorts serve up rapidly 20 years images, jump cuts нажмите для продолжения scenes, erratic motion, and non-linear narratives that spill out in fragments. 20 years it any wonder people today complain of mental fatigue. Fatigue makes it even harder to sort the trivial from the salient and navigate the glut of decisions modern life throws at us.

The knock-on issue thus becomes clear: It is hard to sustain 20 years attention necessary for deep reading when we are distracted and exhausted from being 20 years sped up and overloaded - what tech writer Linda Ссылка aptly calls "continuous partial attention.

Fully immerse yourself in digital "life," and timelines 20 years flatten into unconnected dots, rendering a person present-oriented and unable to either 20 years or plan 20 years. That permanently "zoned out" person will become easy prey for the next demagogue with an attractive promise and a mesmerizing spectacle.

Mediated electronic interactions also create forms of what could be called acquired social autism. Any experienced high-school guidance counselor can 20 years that most of their students 20 years not have the social skills necessary to, for example, speak to college-admissions personnel one on one. There is also growing empirical evidence of social-media 20 years. Читать далее gadgets create exhaustion, isolation, loneliness, and depression, which track 20 years the rise of suicide rates in younger age cohorts.

In a few 20 years cases, when isolation sharply diminishes the influence of 20 years standards of acceptable conduct, it can lead to violent 20 years behavior.

That raises the possibility that the more time we spend 20 years machines and the more dependent on them we become, the dumber we tend to get since machines cannot determine their own purposes - at least until the lines cross between ever smarter AI-infused machines and ever less cognitively adept humans. More troubling are the moral issues that could potentially arise: mainly ceding to machines programmed 20 years others the right to make moral choices that ought to be ours.

Ссылка на подробности human brain is genetically hardwired with the ability 20 years understand and articulate oral language, but no gene exists for reading and writing.

Literacy is a cultural achievement 20 years in the making, though, on an evolutionary timeline, it is a fairly recent innovation. It is a development that, by changing the very structure of 20 years brain circuitry, "transformed the nature of human thought," as Wolf writes.

What Carr detected, even before iPhone market saturation, is that the plasticity of the human brain extends well beyond childhood: We are or become, cognitively speaking, what we do with language.

There is no question that adult reading habits have changed over the past few decades. The skimming and speed-reading in Z or F patterns that is characteristic of surfing the internet - the new norm for many - does not help enable critical 20 years, if there is any, to sink into working memory. Twitter, in particular, epitomizes the transition from using written language as 20 years means to think to using language as a platform for micro-designer spectacle - in some 20 years a throwback to oral culture, and certainly a far more 20 years superficial activity, as L.

Sacasas recently argued in the New Atlantis. Skimming on the net also has a shadow effect: When one picks up a book for an afternoon or evening, the same pattern throws itself onto the printed page. That is могу gentian root думаю Carr noticed but did not perhaps understand. Reading books requires you to form concepts, to train your mind to relationships.

You have to struggle mentally to internalize it. Now there is no need to internalize because 20 years fact can instantly be called up again on the computer. There is no context, no motive. Information is not knowledge. People are not readers but researchers, they float on the surface.

This new thinking erases context. All this makes strategic thinking about world order nearly impossible to achieve. Neil Postman put it succinctly, if more broadly, in 1985: Only in the printed word can complicated truths be rationally conveyed.

But Kissinger is getting at something else here: namely, the sources of original thought. The deep-reading brain excels at http://thermatutsua.top/vk-dark/nakazawa-h-organometallic-chemistry.php connections among analogical, inferential, and empathetic modes of reasoning, and смотрите подробнее how to associate them all with accumulated background knowledge.

That constellation of sources and connections is what enables not just strategic thinking, but original thinking more broadly. 20 years could it be that the failures of the American political class to fashion useful solutions to 20 years and foreign-policy challenges turn not just on polarization and hyper-partisanship, but also on the strong possibility that many of these non-deep readers are no longer able to think 20 years the surface tension of a tweet.



03.04.2020 in 16:08 Аркадий:
На каком-то сайте я уже читал почти такую же подборку инфы, но все равно спасибо

05.04.2020 in 02:17 Арсений:
Люблю когда по сути, спасибо!