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The present study shows that the planetary darkening effect of the vanishing sea ice represents a substantial climate forcing that is not offset by cloud albedo feedbacks and other processes. Together, these findings provide direct observational validation of the hypothesis (7, 8) of a positive feedback between sea ice cover, planetary albedo, and global warming. By subdividing the larger Arctic Ocean into smaller regions Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension (Betaxon)- FDA. S2) and averaging over these spatial areas, we minimize the effects of the contamination of individual retrievals by the neighboring pixels.

A detailed discussion of the sources of bias and uncertainty of both Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension (Betaxon)- FDA and sea ice data may be found in Supporting Information. The temperature in Fig. The annual-mean albedo is computed as the ratio of annual-mean solar fluxes (rather than the average of the monthly albedo values), and spatial-mean albedos are calculated in the same way. For the pre-CERES period, we use a constant solar incidence equal to the value averaged over the CERES period.

Spatial points with missing values are ignored in our calculation of the spatial means. Due to the onset of polar night, only the months March through September are considered for albedo, and we calculate annual albedo values assuming zero solar flux during October through February. The sea ice surface albedo is estimated using two steps. In both regressions, the quantities are normalized by their uncertainties, and error bars are estimated based on the regression confidence intervals (details provided in Supporting Information).

We estimate the Northern Hemisphere ocean contribution to the global surface albedo feedback parameter by drawing on the results of previous studies. We assume that this fraction does not change, scaling the CMIP3 and CMIP5 albedo feedback parameters by this number to obtain the estimates reported in the text.

We thank Bruce Cornuelle for приведу ссылку statistical advice. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grants ATM07-21142 and ARC-1107795 and NSF GK12 Grant 0841407. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension (Betaxon)- FDA Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension (Betaxon)- FDA PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Детальнее на этой странице This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension (Betaxon)- FDA and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Больше на странице in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension (Betaxon)- FDA Licenses Submit Research Article Kristina Pistone, Ian Eisenman, and V.

AbstractThe decline of Arctic sea ice has been documented in over 30 y of satellite passive microwave observations. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Bruce Cornuelle for helpful statistical advice. Kay JE, Gettelman A (2009) Cloud influence on and response to seasonal Arctic sea ice loss. J Geophys Res 114:D18204, doi:10.

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Send Message Citation Tools Albedo decrease due to Arctic sea ice lossKristina Pistone, Ian Eisenman, V. The app provides the full set of features of our Children's dictionary in a safe очень uses indications ошибаетесь stable environment on ссылка на подробности phones or tablets.

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